Adrenaline Rafting Basics
By Richard Chapo
Rafting down rapids is a good way to get the old ticker clicking
over at a high rate. Here is an overview of the basics of rafting
down the rapids.
Adrenaline Rafting Basics
In the last 30 years, rapids rafting has gained massive popularity.
People tend to go in groups for a family gathering, friends reuniting
and even corporate team building exercises. Rafting is massively
fun and an undisputed adrenaline rush.
At its core, whitewater rafting is simply the act of taking a raft
down through turbulent areas of a river. These turbulent areas are
known as rapids. Rapids are formed by three factors – constriction,
gradient and obstruction. Water naturally flows downhill because
of gravity. When it is constricted, it pushes in from the sides,
speeding up and getting turbulent. Speed also increases when the
gradient get steeper and, of course, obstructions cause water to
crash into them and swirl around as the flow tries to find the best
way to follow gravity. Each of these events causes rapids and the
resulting turbulence churns the water thus causing the froth. The
goal of rafting is to surf these rapids without being flipped or dragged
Rapids are classified by six categories. Category 1 is a smooth
river with no rapids. The categories climb from their too Category
6, which is either impassible or should only be attempted by experts.
Most river rafting trips occur on Category 3 and 4 rapids, where
the turbulence gives you an exciting ride, but with limited risk.
River rafts are typically big and sturdy. They hold between six
and 12 people spread equally on each side. Although an expert guide
controls the steering at the back, most rafting companies allow
the passengers to paddle on each side of the raft in their corresponding
River rafting has a certain risk factor and safety is paramount.
All rafters absolutely should wear helmets and life jackets. Falling
out of the raft can be a common occurrence depending on the river
conditions. All rafters should be able to swim.
There are thousands of rivers that are perfect for rafting trips.
Most people choose a rafting company for their trip since the company
is already familiar with the river conditions and has the necessary
Rick Chapo is with NomadJournals.com - makers of writing journals.
Visit us to read more articles about the great outdoors and white
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Ten Tips For Getting Acquainted With the Great Outdoors
By Judith J. Murphy
If you're new to spending time in nature, but want to be a good
sport, here are a few easy steps you can take to overcome your fear
of crawly things and really enjoy the great outdoors.
1. Confront the Critters Head-on: To avoid ticks, apply Permethrin,
a derivative of crushed dried Daisy Chrysanthemum flowers, to all
garments, shoes, socks, hats and backpacks. If picnicking apply
it to the tablecloth before you pack up. Permethrin also keeps chiggers
and other biting insects away. Bears, raccoons, snakes - in fact,
most wild animals will avoid you if they can. In the summer, I do
not grab any handholds while climbing without looking first, just
in case a snake has decided to sun itself on the trail. Accidental
encounters are always possible. Don't run; that will encourage a
predator to chase you. In most cases, if you stand your ground,
yell, wave your arms and make a racket, the animal will run away.
Never, ever feed wild animals - and never try to touch or pet a
wild animal - EVER.
2. Fashion Sense: Fabric Do's and Don'ts. Fabrics for outdoor wear
are lighter and more comfortable than ever. My personal favorite
is wicking, because it is soft, machine washable (air dry to avoid
static cling) and does not harbor body odor. Garments are different
thicknesses for different seasons. You can be active and still be
fresh as a daisy. Whether you perspire or there's a sudden rain
shower, wicking dries out quickly.
Hypothermia occurs when
your body temperature suddenly plummets; being soaked is the most
dangerous risk in outdoor activities. Seriously, it could kill you.
Avoid cotton, because if it gets wet, it never dries. I'm still
fond of wool; merino wool is soft and not itchy, but it is pricy.
While silk is lovely, it's not durable and requires special laundering.
3. Footwear: Do's and Don'ts: If you're hiking rough terrain, riding
mountain bikes, having a picnic, or strolling the beach, the right
footwear is the difference between fun and frustration. For most
outdoor activities, the appropriate footwear can be rented. But
you'll want to purchase your own hiking boots. If you're hiking
under five miles, a sturdy, three-season boot with ankle support
that lets your foot breathe is sufficient. I hike all year round,
so my own Italian leather, Vibram sole, wicking-lined boots are
the most expensive equipment I own. They fit beautifully from the
first day and I've never had a blister.
4. Carry the Right Bag: I typically carry a bookbag-size day pack
when I'm not staying overnight - and sometimes even when I am. It
holds all of my pocket survival kit essentials, plus an extra layer
of clothes, water, binoculars, snacks and whatever else I choose
to carry. That leaves my hands free to use my binoculars, camera
or notebook. Also, when I stop for a break, my pack makes a useful
5. Accessories: Hats and Belts: In winter I wear a balaclava, which
covers my head and neck and can be pulled over my face. Ninety percent
of body heat is lost through the head, so I wear a lined wool balaclava.
If I wear a hat in other seasons, I want it to shield my eyes from
the sun, cover my neck, have holes for circulation, and fit properly.
Belts can come in very handy, but I typically do not wear one.
6. Eyewear: I just started wearing eyeglasses on a full-time basis.
In the winter, they were an obstacle. In the summer, they're an
effective pollen and insect barrier. Sunglasses can reduce glare
and they also offer your eyes protection.
7. Hair and Makeup: If you have long hair, a braid, bun or ponytail
keeps your hair neat and out of your way. The older I get, the shorter
my hair gets. I depend on a PABA-free 30-SPF sunscreen to cover
my face, ears, neck, and hands - even in winter. Sun reflecting
off snow can be very damaging. I typically do not wear daytime makeup,
but if I did, I would use the sunblock as my base.
8. Water: When I hiked in the desert I carried a bladder bag, which
is a pliable water bottle with a tube extending from it. The bag
fit in my daypack, carried 1.5 liters of water and I could suck
on the tube whenever I felt thirsty. This is another really useful
hands-free, affordable device. The only drawback - this is not designed
for beverages other than water.
9. Gadgets: If you enjoy new gadgets, GPS units, binoculars, cameras,
and other devices that make exploring the woods, the parks, the
beaches or the deserts fun will add a dimension to your experience
and give you something to do if you don't feel quite ready to put
a worm on a hook or rappel that cliff.
10. Win Big: Attitude is 99 percent of any situation. Anything
new takes time to really experience. You may be inspired to use
your camera to photograph clouds, diffracted sunlight on a spider
web or the bud just about to open. The sound of moving water always
makes me feel rested, even on a very long hike. I never tire of
the sounds of birds calling or singing. I'm determined to learn
bird language. There is nothing quite like the smell of a pine grove
or the view from a mountain ridge. And the infinite and endless
variety in the texture of tree trunks and bits of rock can keep
me occupied for hours.
JJ Murphy, is a nature writer, blogging hiker, curriculum creator
and tree-hugger currently based in Harriman, NY. Visit http://www.writerbynature.com
for more information, including JJ's favorite places for gear and
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